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RPM


Section: Maintenance Commands (8)
Updated: 09 June 2002
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NAME

rpm – RPM Package Manager
 

SYNOPSIS

 

QUERYING AND VERIFYING PACKAGES:



rpm {-q|–query} [select-options] [query-options]




rpm {-V|–verify} [select-options] [verify-options]




rpm –import PUBKEY




rpm {-K|–checksig} [--nosignature] [--nodigest]

    PACKAGE_FILE …


 

INSTALLING, UPGRADING, AND REMOVING PACKAGES:



rpm {-i|–install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE




rpm {-U|–upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE




rpm {-F|–freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE




rpm {-e|–erase} [--allmatches] [--nodeps] [--noscripts]

    [--notriggers] [--testPACKAGE_NAME …


 

MISCELLANEOUS:



rpm {–initdb|–rebuilddb}




rpm {–addsign|–resign} PACKAGE_FILE




rpm {–querytags|–showrc}




rpm {–setperms|–setugids} PACKAGE_NAME


 

select-options




 [PACKAGE_NAME] [-a,--all] [-f,--file FILE]

 [-g,--group GROUP] {-p,–package PACKAGE_FILE]

 [--fileid ID] [--hdrid SHA1] [--pkgid MD5] [--tid TID]

 [--querybynumber HDRNUM] [--triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME]

 [--whatprovides CAPABILITY] [--whatrequires CAPABILITY]


 

query-options




 [--changelog] [-c,--configfiles] [-d,--docfiles] [--dump]

 [--filesbypkg] [-i,--info] [--last] [-l,--list]

 [--provides] [--qf,--queryformat QUERYFMT]

 [-R,--requires] [--scripts] [-s,--state]

 [--triggers,--triggerscripts]


 

verify-options




 [--nodeps] [--nofiles] [--noscripts]

 [--nodigest] [--nosignature]

 [--nolinkto] [--nofiledigest] [--nosize] [--nouser]

 [--nogroup] [--nomtime] [--nomode] [--nordev]

 [--nocaps]


 

install-options




 [--aid] [--allfiles] [--badreloc] [--excludepath OLDPATH]

 [--excludedocs] [--force] [-h,--hash]

 [--ignoresize] [--ignorearch] [--ignoreos]

 [--includedocs] [--justdb] [--nodeps]

 [--nodigest] [--nosignature] [--nosuggest]

 [--noorder] [--noscripts] [--notriggers]

 [--oldpackage] [--percent] [--prefix NEWPATH]

 [--relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH]

 [--replacefiles] [--replacepkgs]

 [--test]


 

DESCRIPTION

rpm is a powerful Package Manager,
which can be used to build, install, query, verify, update, and
erase individual software packages.
A package consists of an archive of files and
meta-data used to install and erase the archive files. The meta-data
includes helper scripts, file attributes, and descriptive information
about the package.
Packages come in two varieties: binary packages,
used to encapsulate software to be installed, and source packages,
containing the source code and recipe necessary to produce binary
packages.

One of the following basic modes must be selected:
Query,
Verify,
Signature Check,
Install/Upgrade/Freshen,
Uninstall,
Initialize Database,
Rebuild Database,
Resign,
Add Signature,
Set Owners/Groups,
Show Querytags, and
Show Configuration.
 

GENERAL OPTIONS

These options can be used in all the different modes.


-?, –help

Print a longer usage message then normal.
–version

Print a single line containing the version number of rpm
being used.
–quiet

Print as little as possible – normally only error messages will
be displayed.
-v

Print verbose information – normally routine progress messages will be
displayed.
-vv

Print lots of ugly debugging information.
–rcfile FILELIST

Each of the files in the colon separated
FILELIST
is read sequentially by rpm for configuration
information.
Only the first file in the list must exist, and tildes will be
expanded to the value of $HOME.
The default FILELIST is
/usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc:/usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc:/etc/rpmrc:~/.rpmrc.
–pipe CMD

Pipes the output of rpm to the command CMD.
–dbpath DIRECTORY

Use the database in DIRECTORY rather
than the default path /var/lib/rpm
–root DIRECTORY

Use the file system tree rooted at DIRECTORY for all operations.
Note that this means the database within
DIRECTORY
will be used for dependency checks and any scriptlet(s) (e.g.
%post if installing, or
%prep if building, a package)
will be run after a chroot(2) to
DIRECTORY.
-D, –define=’MACRO EXPR

Defines MACRO with value EXPR.
-E, –eval=’EXPR

Prints macro expansion of EXPR.

 

INSTALL AND UPGRADE OPTIONS

In these options, PACKAGE_FILE can be either rpm binary
file or ASCII package manifest (see PACKAGE SELECTION OPTIONS), and
may be specified as an
ftp or
http URL,
in which case the package will be downloaded before being
installed. See FTP/HTTP OPTIONS
for information on rpm‘s internal
ftp and
http
client support.

The general form of an rpm install command is

rpm {-i|–install} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE

This installs a new package.

The general form of an rpm upgrade command is

rpm {-U|–upgrade} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE

This upgrades or installs the package currently installed
to a newer version. This is the same as install, except
all other version(s) of the package are removed after the
new package is installed.

rpm {-F|–freshen} [install-options] PACKAGE_FILE

This will upgrade packages, but only ones for which an earlier version is
installed.


–aid

Add suggested packages to the transaction set when needed.
–allfiles

Installs or upgrades all the missingok files in the package,
regardless if they exist.
–badreloc

Used with –relocate, permit relocations on
all file paths, not just those OLDPATH‘s
included in the binary package relocation hint(s).
–excludepath OLDPATH

Don’t install files whose name begins with
OLDPATH.
–excludedocs

Don’t install any files which are marked as documentation
(which includes man pages and texinfo documents).
–force

Same as using
–replacepkgs,
–replacefiles, and
–oldpackage.
-h, –hash

Print 50 hash marks as the package archive is unpacked.
Use with -v|–verbose for a nicer display.
–ignoresize

Don’t check mount file systems for sufficient disk space before
installing this package.
–ignorearch

Allow installation or upgrading even if the architectures
of the binary package and host don’t match.
–ignoreos

Allow installation or upgrading even if the operating
systems of the binary package and host don’t match.
–includedocs

Install documentation files. This is the default behavior.
–justdb

Update only the database, not the filesystem.
–nodigest

Don’t verify package or header digests when reading.
–nomanifest

Don’t process non-package files as manifests.
–nosignature

Don’t verify package or header signatures when reading.
–nodeps

Don’t do a dependency check before installing or upgrading
a package.
–nosuggest

Don’t suggest package(s) that provide a missing dependency.
–noorder

Don’t reorder the packages for an install. The list of
packages would normally be reordered to satisfy dependencies.
–noscripts

–nopre

–nopost

–nopreun

–nopostun

Don’t execute the scriptlet of the same name.
The –noscripts option is equivalent to


–nopre
–nopost
–nopreun
–nopostun


and turns off the execution of the corresponding
%pre,
%post,
%preun, and
%postun
scriptlet(s).

–notriggers

–notriggerin

–notriggerun

–notriggerpostun

Don’t execute any trigger scriptlet of the named type.
The –notriggers option is equivalent to


–notriggerin
–notriggerun
–notriggerpostun


and turns off execution of the corresponding
%triggerin,
%triggerun, and
%triggerpostun
scriptlet(s).

–oldpackage

Allow an upgrade to replace a newer package with an older one.
–percent

Print percentages as files are unpacked from the package archive.
This is intended to make rpm easy to run from
other tools.
–prefix NEWPATH

For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths that
start with the installation prefix in the package relocation hint(s)
to NEWPATH.
–relocate OLDPATH=NEWPATH

For relocatable binary packages, translate all file paths
that start with OLDPATH in the
package relocation hint(s) to NEWPATH.
This option can be used repeatedly if several
OLDPATH‘s in the package are to
be relocated.
–replacefiles

Install the packages even if they replace files from other,
already installed, packages.
–replacepkgs

Install the packages even if some of them are already installed
on this system.
–test

Do not install the package, simply check for and report
potential conflicts.

 

ERASE OPTIONS

The general form of an rpm erase command is


rpm {-e|–erase} [--allmatches] [--nodeps] [--noscripts] [--notriggers] [--test] PACKAGE_NAME


The following options may also be used:


–allmatches

Remove all versions of the package which match
PACKAGE_NAME. Normally an
error is issued if PACKAGE_NAME
matches multiple packages.
–nodeps

Don’t check dependencies before uninstalling the packages.
–noscripts

–nopreun

–nopostun

Don’t execute the scriptlet of the same name.
The –noscripts option during package erase is
equivalent to


–nopreun
–nopostun


and turns off the execution of the corresponding
%preun, and
%postun
scriptlet(s).

–notriggers

–notriggerun

–notriggerpostun

Don’t execute any trigger scriptlet of the named type.
The –notriggers option is equivalent to


–notriggerun
–notriggerpostun


and turns off execution of the corresponding
%triggerun, and
%triggerpostun
scriptlet(s).

–test

Don’t really uninstall anything, just go through the motions.
Useful in conjunction with the -vv option
for debugging.

 

QUERY OPTIONS

The general form of an rpm query command is


rpm {-q|–query} [select-options] [query-options]


You may specify the format that package information should be
printed in. To do this, you use the



 –qf|–queryformat QUERYFMT


option, followed by the QUERYFMT
format string. Query formats are modified versions of the
standard printf(3) formatting. The format
is made up of static strings (which may include standard C
character escapes for newlines, tabs, and other special
characters) and printf(3) type formatters.
As rpm already knows the type to print, the
type specifier must be omitted however, and replaced by the name
of the header tag to be printed, enclosed by {}
characters. Tag names are case insensitive, and the leading
RPMTAG_ portion of the tag name may be omitted
as well.

Alternate output formats may be requested by following
the tag with :typetag.
Currently, the following types are supported:


:armor

Wrap a public key in ASCII armor.
:arraysize

Display number of elements in array tags.
:base64

Encode binary data using base64.
:date

Use strftime(3) "%c" format.
:day

Use strftime(3) "%a %b %d %Y" format.
:depflags

Format dependency comparison operator.
:deptype

Format dependency type.
:fflags

Format file flags.
:fstate

Format file state.
:hex

Format in hexadecimal.
:octal

Format in octal.
:perms

Format file permissions.
:pgpsig

Display signature fingerprint and time.
:shescape

Escape single quotes for use in a script.
:triggertype

Display trigger suffix.
:vflags

File verification flags.
:xml

Wrap data in simple xml markup.

For example, to print only the names of the packages queried,
you could use %{NAME} as the format string.
To print the packages name and distribution information in
two columns, you could use %-30{NAME}%{DISTRIBUTION}.
rpm will print a list of all of the tags it knows about when it
is invoked with the –querytags argument.

There are two subsets of options for querying: package selection,
and information selection.
 

PACKAGE SELECTION OPTIONS:


PACKAGE_NAME

Query installed package named PACKAGE_NAME.
-a, –all

Query all installed packages.
-f, –file FILE

Query package owning FILE.
–fileid ID

Query package that contains a given file identifier. The
ID is the digest of the file contents. For different packages different hash algorithms may have been used (MD5, SHA1, SHA256, SHA384, SHA512, …)
-g, –group GROUP

Query packages with the group of GROUP.
–hdrid SHA1

Query package that contains a given header identifier, i.e. the
SHA1 digest of the immutable header region.
-p, –package PACKAGE_FILE

Query an (uninstalled) package PACKAGE_FILE.
The PACKAGE_FILE may be specified
as an ftp or http style URL, in
which case the package header will be downloaded and queried.
See FTP/HTTP OPTIONS for information on
rpm‘s internal
ftp and
http
client support. The PACKAGE_FILE argument(s),
if not a binary package, will be interpreted as an ASCII package
manifest unless –nomanifest option is used.
In manifests, comments are permitted, starting with a ‘#’, and each
line of a package manifest file may include white space separated
glob expressions, including URL’s,
that will be expanded to paths that are substituted in place of
the package manifest as additional PACKAGE_FILE
arguments to the query.
–pkgid MD5

Query package that contains a given package identifier, i.e. the
MD5 digest of the combined header and
payload contents.
–querybynumber HDRNUM

Query the HDRNUMth database entry
directly; this is useful only for debugging.
–specfile SPECFILE

Parse and query SPECFILE as if
it were a package. Although not all the information (e.g. file lists)
is available, this type of query permits rpm to be used to extract
information from spec files without having to write a specfile
parser.
–tid TID

Query package(s) that have a given TID
transaction identifier. A unix time stamp is currently used as a
transaction identifier. All package(s) installed or erased within
a single transaction have a common identifier.
–triggeredby PACKAGE_NAME

Query packages that are triggered by package(s)
PACKAGE_NAME.
–whatprovides CAPABILITY

Query all packages that provide the CAPABILITY capability.
–whatrequires CAPABILITY

Query all packages that require CAPABILITY for proper functioning.

 

PACKAGE QUERY OPTIONS:


–changelog

Display change information for the package.
-c, –configfiles

List only configuration files (implies -l).
-d, –docfiles

List only documentation files (implies -l).
–dump

Dump file information as follows (implies -l):





path size mtime digest mode owner group isconfig isdoc rdev symlink

–filesbypkg

List all the files in each selected package.
-i, –info

Display package information, including name, version, and description.
This uses the –queryformat if one was specified.
–last

Orders the package listing by install time such that the latest
packages are at the top.
-l, –list

List files in package.
–provides

List capabilities this package provides.
-R, –requires

List capabilities on which this package depends.
–scripts

List the package specific scriptlet(s) that are used as part
of the installation and uninstallation processes.
-s, –state

Display the states of files in the package
(implies -l). The state of each file is one of
normal,
not installed, or
replaced.
–triggers, –triggerscripts

Display the trigger scripts, if any, which are contained in
the package.

 

VERIFY OPTIONS

The general form of an rpm verify command is


rpm {-V|–verify} [select-options] [verify-options]


Verifying a package compares information about the installed files in
the package with information about the files taken from the package
metadata stored in the rpm database. Among other things, verifying
compares the size, digest, permissions, type, owner and group of
each file. Any discrepancies are displayed.
Files that were not installed from the package, for example,
documentation files excluded on installation using the
"–excludedocs" option,
will be silently ignored.

The package selection options are the same as for package
querying (including package manifest files as arguments).
Other options unique to verify mode are:


–nodeps

Don’t verify dependencies of packages.
–nodigest

Don’t verify package or header digests when reading.
–nofiles

Don’t verify any attributes of package files.
–noscripts

Don’t execute the %verifyscript scriptlet (if any).
–nosignature

Don’t verify package or header signatures when reading.
–nolinkto

–nofiledigest (formerly –nomd5)

–nosize

–nouser

–nogroup

–nomtime

–nomode

–nordev

Don’t verify the corresponding file attribute.

The format of the output is a string of 8 characters, a possible
attribute marker:



c %config configuration file.
d %doc documentation file.
g %ghost file (i.e. the file contents are not included in the package payload).
l %license license file.
r %readme readme file.


from the package header, followed by the file name.
Each of the 8 characters denotes the result of a comparison of
attribute(s) of the file to the value of those attribute(s) recorded
in the database. A single
"." (period)
means the test passed, while a single
"?" (question mark)
indicates the test could not be performed (e.g. file permissions
prevent reading). Otherwise, the (mnemonically
emBoldened) character denotes failure of
the corresponding –verify test:



S file Size differs
M Mode differs (includes permissions and file type)
5 digest (formerly MD5 sum) differs
D Device major/minor number mismatch
L readLink(2) path mismatch
U User ownership differs
G Group ownership differs
T mTime differs
P caPabilities differ


 

DIGITAL SIGNATURE AND DIGEST VERIFICATION

The general forms of rpm digital signature commands are



rpm –import PUBKEY



rpm {–checksig} [--nosignature] [--nodigest]

    PACKAGE_FILE …


The –checksig option checks all the digests and signatures contained in
PACKAGE_FILE to ensure
the integrity and origin of the package. Note that
signatures are now verified whenever a package is read,
and –checksig is useful to verify
all of the digests and signatures associated with a package.

Digital signatures cannot be verified without a public key.
An ASCII armored public key can be added to the rpm database
using –import. An imported public key is
carried in a header, and key ring management is performed
exactly like package management. For example, all currently imported
public keys can be displayed by:

rpm -qa gpg-pubkey*

Details about a specific public key, when imported, can be displayed
by querying. Here’s information about the Red Hat GPG/DSA key:

rpm -qi gpg-pubkey-db42a60e

Finally, public keys can be erased after importing just like
packages. Here’s how to remove the Red Hat GPG/DSA key

rpm -e gpg-pubkey-db42a60e
 

SIGNING A PACKAGE


rpm –addsign|–resign PACKAGE_FILE


Both of the –addsign and –resign
options generate and insert new signatures for each package
PACKAGE_FILE given, replacing any
existing signatures. There are two options for historical reasons,
there is no difference in behavior currently.
 

USING GPG TO SIGN PACKAGES

In order to sign packages using GPG, rpm
must be configured to run GPG and be able to find a key
ring with the appropriate keys. By default,
rpm uses the same conventions as GPG
to find key rings, namely the $GNUPGHOME environment
variable. If your key rings are not located where GPG expects
them to be, you will need to configure the macro
%_gpg_path
to be the location of the GPG key rings to use.

For compatibility with older versions of GPG, PGP, and rpm,
only V3 OpenPGP signature packets should be configured.
Either DSA or RSA verification algorithms can be used, but DSA
is preferred.

If you want to be able to sign packages you create yourself, you
also need to create your own public and secret key pair (see the
GPG manual). You will also need to configure the rpm macros


%_signature

The signature type. Right now only gpg and pgp are supported.
%_gpg_name

The name of the "user" whose key you wish to use to sign your packages.

For example, to be able to use GPG to sign packages as the user
"John Doe <[email protected]>"
from the key rings located in /etc/rpm/.gpg
using the executable /usr/bin/gpg you would include


%_signature gpg
%_gpg_path /etc/rpm/.gpg
%_gpg_name John Doe <[email protected]>
%__gpg /usr/bin/gpg

in a macro configuration file. Use /etc/rpm/macros
for per-system configuration and ~/.rpmmacros
for per-user configuration. Typically it’s sufficient to set just %_gpg_name.
 

REBUILD DATABASE OPTIONS

The general form of an rpm rebuild database command is


rpm {–initdb|–rebuilddb} [-v] [--dbpath DIRECTORY] [--root DIRECTORY]


Use –initdb to create a new database if one doesn’t already exist
(existing database is not overwritten), use
–rebuilddb to rebuild the database indices from
the installed package headers.
 

MISCELLANEOUS COMMANDS


rpm –showrc

shows the values rpm will use for all of the
options are currently set in
rpmrc and
macros
configuration file(s).
rpm –setperms PACKAGE_NAME

sets permissions of files in the given package.
rpm –setugids PACKAGE_NAME

sets user/group ownership of files in the given package.



 

FTP/HTTP OPTIONS

rpm can act as an FTP and/or HTTP client so
that packages can be queried or installed from the internet.
Package files for install, upgrade, and query operations may be
specified as an
ftp or
http
style URL:

ftp://USER:[email protected]:PORT/path/to/package.rpm

If the :PASSWORD portion is omitted, the password will be
prompted for (once per user/hostname pair). If both the user and
password are omitted, anonymous ftp is used.
In all cases, passive (PASV) ftp transfers are
performed.

rpm allows the following options to be used with
ftp URLs:


–ftpproxy HOST

The host HOST will be used as a proxy server
for all ftp transfers, which allows users to ftp through firewall
machines which use proxy systems. This option may also be specified
by configuring the macro %_ftpproxy.
–ftpport PORT

The TCP PORT number to use for
the ftp connection on the proxy ftp server instead of the default
port. This option may also be specified by configuring the macro
%_ftpport.

rpm allows the following options to be used with
http URLs:


–httpproxy HOST

The host HOST will be used as
a proxy server for all http transfers. This
option may also be specified by configuring the macro
%_httpproxy.
–httpport PORT

The TCP PORT number to use for the
http connection on the proxy http server instead
of the default port. This option may also be specified by configuring
the macro %_httpport.

 

LEGACY ISSUES

 

Executing rpmbuild

The build modes of rpm are now resident in the /usr/bin/rpmbuild
executable.
Install the package containing rpmbuild (usually rpm-build) and see
rpmbuild(8) for documentation of all the rpm build modes.
 

FILES

 

rpmrc Configuration


/usr/lib/rpm/rpmrc
/usr/lib/rpm/redhat/rpmrc
/etc/rpmrc
~/.rpmrc

 

Macro Configuration


/usr/lib/rpm/macros
/usr/lib/rpm/redhat/macros
/etc/rpm/macros
~/.rpmmacros

 

Database


/var/lib/rpm/Basenames
/var/lib/rpm/Conflictname
/var/lib/rpm/Dirnames
/var/lib/rpm/Filemd5s
/var/lib/rpm/Group
/var/lib/rpm/Installtid
/var/lib/rpm/Name
/var/lib/rpm/Packages
/var/lib/rpm/Providename
/var/lib/rpm/Provideversion
/var/lib/rpm/Pubkeys
/var/lib/rpm/Removed
/var/lib/rpm/Requirename
/var/lib/rpm/Requireversion
/var/lib/rpm/Sha1header
/var/lib/rpm/Sigmd5
/var/lib/rpm/Triggername

 

Temporary

/var/tmp/rpm*
 

SEE ALSO



popt(3),
rpm2cpio(8),
rpmbuild(8),


rpm –help – as rpm supports customizing the options via popt aliases
it’s impossible to guarantee that what’s described in the manual matches
what’s available.



http://www.rpm.org/ <URL:http://www.rpm.org/>

 

AUTHORS



Marc Ewing <[email protected]>
Jeff Johnson <[email protected]>
Erik Troan <[email protected]>



 

Index



NAME

SYNOPSIS


QUERYING AND VERIFYING PACKAGES:

INSTALLING, UPGRADING, AND REMOVING PACKAGES:

MISCELLANEOUS:

select-options

query-options

verify-options

install-options


DESCRIPTION


GENERAL OPTIONS

INSTALL AND UPGRADE OPTIONS

ERASE OPTIONS

QUERY OPTIONS

PACKAGE SELECTION OPTIONS:

PACKAGE QUERY OPTIONS:

VERIFY OPTIONS

DIGITAL SIGNATURE AND DIGEST VERIFICATION

SIGNING A PACKAGE

USING GPG TO SIGN PACKAGES

REBUILD DATABASE OPTIONS

MISCELLANEOUS COMMANDS

FTP/HTTP OPTIONS


LEGACY ISSUES


Executing rpmbuild


FILES


rpmrc Configuration

Macro Configuration

Database

Temporary


SEE ALSO

AUTHORS



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