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TROFF


Section: User Commands (1)
Updated: 16 September 2002
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NAME

troff – the troff processor of the groff text formatting system

 

SYNOPSIS


troff

-abcivzCERU ]

-dcs ]

-ffam ]

-Fdir ]

-mname ]

-Mdir ]

-nnum ]

-olist ]

-rcn ]

-Tname ]

-wname ]

-Wname ]

files... ]


It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and
its parameter.

 

DESCRIPTION

This manual page describes the GNU version of
troff.

It is part of the groff document formatting system.
It is functionally compatible with UNIX troff, but has many extensions,
see
groff_diff(7).

Usually it should be invoked using the
groff(1)

command which will also run preprocessors and postprocessors in the
appropriate order and with the appropriate options.

 

OPTIONS


-a


Generate an
ASCII
approximation of the typeset output.
-b


Print a backtrace with each warning or error message.
This backtrace should help track down the cause of the error.
The line numbers given in the backtrace may not always be correct, for
troff‘s

idea of line numbers gets confused by
as

or
am

requests.

-c


Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode).
-C


Enable compatibility mode.
-dcs


-dname=s

Define
c

or
name

to be a string
s;

c

must be a one letter name.

-E


Inhibit all error messages of
troff.

Note that this doesn’t affect messages output to standard error by macro
packages using the
tm

or
tm1

requests.

-ffam


Use
fam

as the default font family.

-Fdir


Search in directory (or directory path)
dir

for subdirectories
devname

(name

is the name of the device) and there for the
DESC

file and font files.
dir

is scanned before all other font directories.

-i


Read the standard input after all the named input files have been
processed.
-mname


Read in the file
name.tmac.

If it isn’t found, try
tmac.name

instead.
It will be first searched for in directories given with the
-M

command line option, then in directories given in the
GROFF_TMAC_PATH

environment variable, then in the current directory (only if in unsafe
mode), the home directory, /usr/lib64/groff/site-tmac, /usr/share/groff/site-tmac, and
/usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/tmac.

-Mdir


Search directory (or directory path)
dir

for macro files.
This is scanned before all other macro directories.

-nnum


Number the first page
num.

-olist


Output only pages in
list,

which is a comma-separated list of page ranges;
n

means print page
n,

m-n

means print every page between
m

and
n,

-n

means print every page up to
n,

n-

means print every page from
n.

troff

will exit after printing the last page in the list.

-rcn


-rname=n

Set number register
c

or
name

to
n;

c

must be a one character name;
n

can be any troff numeric expression.

-R


Don’t load
troffrc

and
troffrc-end.

-Tname


Prepare output for device
name,

rather than the default
ps.

-U


Unsafe mode.
This will enable the following requests:
open,

opena,

pso,

sy,

and
pi.

For security reasons, these potentially dangerous requests are disabled
otherwise.
It will also add the current directory to the macro search path.

-v


Print the version number.
-wname


Enable warning
name.

Available warnings are described in the section
WARNINGS

below.
For example, to enable all warnings, use
-w

all.

Multiple
-w

options are allowed.

-Wname


Inhibit warning
name.

Multiple
-W

options are allowed.

-z


Suppress formatted output.


 

WARNINGS

The warnings that can be given by
troff

are divided into the following categories.
The name associated with each warning is used by the
-w

and
-W

options; the number is used by the
warn

request, and by the
.warn

register; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise composition.














BitCodeWarningBitCodeWarning

01char101024reg
12number112048tab
24break124096right-brace
38delim138192missing
416el1416384input
532scale1532768escape
664range1665536space
7128syntax17131072font
8256di18262144ig
9512mac19524288color


break 4


In fill mode, lines which could not be broken so that their length was
less than the line length.
This is enabled by default.
char 1


Non-existent characters.
This is enabled by default.
color 524288


Color related warnings.
delim 8


Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.
di 256


Use of
di

or
da

without an argument when there is no current diversion.

el 16


Use of the
el

request with no matching
ie

request.

escape 32768


Unrecognized escape sequences.
When an unrecognized escape sequence is encountered, the escape
character is ignored.
font 131072


Non-existent fonts.
This is enabled by default.
ig 262144


Invalid escapes in text ignored with the
ig

request.
These are conditions that are errors when they do not occur in ignored
text.

input 16384


Invalid input characters.
mac 512


Use of undefined strings, macros and diversions.
When an undefined string, macro or diversion is used, that string is
automatically defined as empty.
So, in most cases, at most one warning will be given for each name.
missing 8192


Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.
number 2


Invalid numeric expressions.
This is enabled by default.
range 64


Out of range arguments.
reg 1024


Use of undefined number registers.
When an undefined number register is used, that register is
automatically defined to have a value of~0.
So, in most cases, at most one warning will be given for use of a
particular name.
right-brace 4096


Use of
}

where a number was expected.

scale 32


Meaningless scaling indicators.
space 65536


Missing space between a request or macro and its argument.
This warning will be given when an undefined name longer than two
characters is encountered, and the first two characters of the name
make a defined name.
The request or macro will not be invoked.
When this warning is given, no macro is automatically defined.
This is enabled by default.
This warning will never occur in compatibility mode.
syntax 128


Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.
tab 2048


Inappropriate use of a tab character.
Either use of a tab character where a number was expected, or use of tab
character in an unquoted macro argument.

There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:


all


All warnings except
di,

mac,

and
reg.

It is intended that this covers all warnings that are useful with
traditional macro packages.

w


All warnings.


 

ENVIRONMENT


GROFF_TMAC_PATH



A colon separated list of directories in which to search for
macro files.
troff

will scan directories given in the
-M

option before these, and in standard directories (current directory if
in unsafe mode, home directory,
/usr/lib64/groff/site-tmac,

/usr/share/groff/site-tmac,

/usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/tmac)

after these.

GROFF_TYPESETTER



Default device.
GROFF_FONT_PATH



A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the
devname

directory.
troff

will scan directories given in the
-F

option before these, and in standard directories
(/usr/share/groff/site-font,

/usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/font,

/usr/lib/font)

after these.


 

FILES

u+3n



/usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/tmac/troffrc

Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

/usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/tmac/troffrc-end


Initialization file (called after any other macro package).
/usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/tmac/name.tmac


/usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/tmac/tmac.name

Macro files
/usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/font/devname/DESC


Device description file for device
name.

/usr/share/groff/1.18.1.4/font/devname/F


Font file for font
F

of device
name.


Note that
troffrc

and
troffrc-end

are neither searched in the current nor in the home directory by
default for security reasons (even if the
-U

option is given).
Use the
-M

command line option or the
GROFF_TMAC_PATH

environment variable to add these directories to the search path if
necessary.

 

AUTHOR

Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free
Documentation License) version 1.1 or later.
You should have received a copy of the FDL on your system, it is also
available on-line at the

This document was written by James Clark, with modifications from

and

This document is part of
groff,

the GNU roff distribution.

 

SEE ALSO


groff(1)


The main program of the
groff

system, a wrapper around
troff.

groff(7)


A description of the
groff

language, including a short but complete reference of all predefined
requests, registers, and escapes of plain
groff.

From the command line, this is called by




man 7 groff


groff_diff(7)


The differences of the
groff

language and the
classical troff

language.
Currently, this is the most actual document of the
groff

system.

roff(7)


An overview over
groff

and other
roff

systems, including pointers to further related documentation.


The
groff info

file,

cf.
info(1),

presents all groff documentation within a single document.



 

Index



NAME

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

OPTIONS

WARNINGS

ENVIRONMENT

FILES

AUTHOR

SEE ALSO



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