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TUNE2FS


Section: Maintenance Commands (8)
Updated: May 2010
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NAME

tune2fs – adjust tunable filesystem parameters on ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystems
 

SYNOPSIS

tune2fs

[
-l

]
[
-c

max-mount-counts

]
[
-e

errors-behavior

]
[
-f

]
[
-i

interval-between-checks

]
[
-j

]
[
-J

journal-options

]
[
-m

reserved-blocks-percentage

]
[
-o

[^]mount-options[,...]

]
[
-r

reserved-blocks-count

]
[
-s

sparse-super-flag

]
[
-u

user

]
[
-g

group

]
[
-C

mount-count

]
[
-E

extended-options

]
[
-L

volume-name

]
[
-M

last-mounted-directory

]
[
-O

[^]feature[,...]

]
[
-T

time-last-checked

]
[
-U

UUID

]
device
 

DESCRIPTION

tune2fs

allows the system administrator to adjust various tunable filesystem
parameters on Linux ext2, ext3, or ext4 filesystems. The current values
of these options can be displayed by using the
-l

option to
tune2fs(8)

program, or by using the
dumpe2fs(8)

program.
 

OPTIONS


-c max-mount-counts


Adjust the number of mounts after which the filesystem will be checked by
e2fsck(8).

If
max-mount-counts

is 0 or -1, the number of times the filesystem is mounted will be disregarded
by
e2fsck(8)

and the kernel.


Staggering the mount-counts at which filesystems are forcibly
checked will avoid all filesystems being checked at one time
when using journaled filesystems.


You should strongly consider the consequences of disabling
mount-count-dependent checking entirely. Bad disk drives, cables,
memory, and kernel bugs could all corrupt a filesystem without
marking the filesystem dirty or in error. If you are using
journaling on your filesystem, your filesystem will
never

be marked dirty, so it will not normally be checked. A
filesystem error detected by the kernel will still force
an fsck on the next reboot, but it may already be too late
to prevent data loss at that point.


See also the
-i

option for time-dependent checking.

-C mount-count


Set the number of times the filesystem has been mounted.
If set to a greater value than the max-mount-counts parameter
set by the
-c

option,
e2fsck(8)

will check the filesystem at the next reboot.

-e error-behavior


Change the behavior of the kernel code when errors are detected.
In all cases, a filesystem error will cause
e2fsck(8)

to check the filesystem on the next boot.
error-behavior

can be one of the following:



continue


Continue normal execution.
remount-ro


Remount filesystem read-only.
panic


Cause a kernel panic.

-E extended-options


Set extended options for the filesystem. Extended options are comma
separated, and may take an argument using the equals (‘=’) sign.
The following extended options are supported:


stride=stride-size


Configure the filesystem for a RAID array with
stride-size

filesystem blocks. This is the number of blocks read or written to disk
before moving to next disk. This mostly affects placement of filesystem
metadata like bitmaps at
mke2fs(2)

time to avoid placing them on a single disk, which can hurt the performance.
It may also be used by block allocator.

stripe_width=stripe-width


Configure the filesystem for a RAID array with
stripe-width

filesystem blocks per stripe. This is typically be stride-size * N, where
N is the number of data disks in the RAID (e.g. RAID 5 N+1, RAID 6 N+2).
This allows the block allocator to prevent read-modify-write of the
parity in a RAID stripe if possible when the data is written.

hash_alg=hash-alg


Set the default hash algorithm used for filesystems with hashed b-tree
directories. Valid algorithms accepted are:
legacy,

half_md4,

and
tea.

mount_opts=mount_option_string


Set a set of default mount options which will be used when the file
system is mounted. Unlike the bitmask-based default mount options which
can be specified with the
-o

option,
mount_option_string

is an arbitrary string with a maximum length of 63 bytes, which is
stored in the superblock.


The ext4 file system driver will first apply
the bitmask-based default options, and then parse the
mount_option_string,

before parsing the mount options passed from the
mount(8)

program.


This superblock setting is only honored in 2.6.35+ kernels;
and not at all by the ext2 and ext3 file system drivers.
test_fs


Set a flag in the filesystem superblock indicating that it may be
mounted using experimental kernel code, such as the ext4dev filesystem.
^test_fs


Clear the test_fs flag, indicating the filesystem should only be mounted
using production-level filesystem code.

-f


Force the tune2fs operation to complete even in the face of errors. This
option is useful when removing the
has_journal

filesystem feature from a filesystem which has
an external journal (or is corrupted
such that it appears to have an external journal), but that
external journal is not available.


WARNING:

Removing an external journal from a filesystem which was not cleanly unmounted
without first replaying the external journal can result in
severe data loss and filesystem corruption.

-g group


Set the group which can use the reserved filesystem blocks.
The
group

parameter can be a numerical gid or a group name. If a group name is given,
it is converted to a numerical gid before it is stored in the superblock.

-i interval-between-checks[d|m|w]


Adjust the maximal time between two filesystem checks.
No suffix or
d

will interpret the number
interval-between-checks

as days,
m

as months, and
w

as weeks. A value of zero will disable the time-dependent checking.


It is strongly recommended that either
-c

(mount-count-dependent) or
-i

(time-dependent) checking be enabled to force periodic full
e2fsck(8)

checking of the filesystem. Failure to do so may lead to filesystem
corruption (due to bad disks, cables, memory, or kernel bugs) going
unnoticed, ultimately resulting in data loss or corruption.

-j


Add an ext3 journal to the filesystem. If the
-J

option is not specified, the default journal parameters will be used to create
an appropriately sized journal (given the size of the filesystem)
stored within the filesystem. Note that you must be using a kernel
which has ext3 support in order to actually make use of the journal.


If this option is used to create a journal on a mounted filesystem, an
immutable file,
.journal,

will be created in the top-level directory of the filesystem, as it is
the only safe way to create the journal inode while the filesystem is
mounted. While the ext3 journal is visible, it is not safe to
delete it, or modify it while the filesystem is mounted; for this
reason the file is marked immutable.
While checking unmounted filesystems,
e2fsck(8)

will automatically move
.journal

files to the invisible, reserved journal inode. For all filesystems
except for the root filesystem, this should happen automatically and
naturally during the next reboot cycle. Since the root filesystem is
mounted read-only,
e2fsck(8)

must be run from a rescue floppy in order to effect this transition.


On some distributions, such as Debian, if an initial ramdisk is used,
the initrd scripts will automatically convert an ext2 root filesystem
to ext3 if the
/etc/fstab

file specifies the ext3 filesystem for the root filesystem in order to
avoid requiring the use of a rescue floppy to add an ext3 journal to
the root filesystem.

-J journal-options


Override the default ext3 journal parameters. Journal options are comma
separated, and may take an argument using the equals (‘=’) sign.
The following journal options are supported:


size=journal-size


Create a journal stored in the filesystem of size
journal-size

megabytes. The size of the journal must be at least 1024 filesystem blocks
(i.e., 1MB if using 1k blocks, 4MB if using 4k blocks, etc.)
and may be no more than 102,400 filesystem blocks.
There must be enough free space in the filesystem to create a journal of
that size.

device=external-journal


Attach the filesystem to the journal block device located on
external-journal.

The external
journal must have been already created using the command


mke2fs -O journal_dev

external-journal


Note that
external-journal

must be formatted with the same block
size as filesystems which will be using it.
In addition, while there is support for attaching
multiple filesystems to a single external journal,
the Linux kernel and
e2fsck(8)

do not currently support shared external journals yet.


Instead of specifying a device name directly,
external-journal

can also be specified by either
LABEL=label

or
UUID=UUID

to locate the external journal by either the volume label or UUID
stored in the ext2 superblock at the start of the journal. Use
dumpe2fs(8)

to display a journal device’s volume label and UUID. See also the
-L

option of
tune2fs(8).



Only one of the
size or device

options can be given for a filesystem.

-l


List the contents of the filesystem superblock, including the current
values of the parameters that can be set via this program.
-L volume-label


Set the volume label of the filesystem.
Ext2 filesystem labels can be at most 16 characters long; if
volume-label

is longer than 16 characters,
tune2fs

will truncate it and print a warning. The volume label can be used
by
mount(8),

fsck(8),

and
/etc/fstab(5)

(and possibly others) by specifying
LABEL=volume_label

instead of a block special device name like
/dev/hda5.

-m reserved-blocks-percentage


Set the percentage of the filesystem which may only be allocated
by privileged processes. Reserving some number of filesystem blocks
for use by privileged processes is done
to avoid filesystem fragmentation, and to allow system
daemons, such as
syslogd(8),

to continue to function correctly after non-privileged processes are
prevented from writing to the filesystem. Normally, the default percentage
of reserved blocks is 5%.

-M last-mounted-directory


Set the last-mounted directory for the filesystem.
-o [^]mount-option[,...]


Set or clear the indicated default mount options in the filesystem.
Default mount options can be overridden by mount options specified
either in
/etc/fstab(5)

or on the command line arguments to
mount(8).

Older kernels may not support this feature; in particular,
kernels which predate 2.4.20 will almost certainly ignore the
default mount options field in the superblock.


More than one mount option can be cleared or set by separating
features with commas. Mount options prefixed with a
caret character (‘^’) will be cleared in the filesystem’s superblock;
mount options without a prefix character or prefixed with a plus
character (‘+’) will be added to the filesystem.

The following mount options can be set or cleared using
tune2fs:



debug


Enable debugging code for this filesystem.
bsdgroups


Emulate BSD behaviour when creating new files: they will take the group-id
of the directory in which they were created. The standard System V behaviour
is the default, where newly created files take on the fsgid of the current
process, unless the directory has the setgid bit set, in which case it takes
the gid from the parent directory, and also gets the setgid bit set if it is
a directory itself.
user_xattr


Enable user-specified extended attributes.
acl


Enable Posix Access Control Lists.
uid16


Disables 32-bit UIDs and GIDs. This is for interoperability with
older kernels which only store and expect 16-bit values.
journal_data


When the filesystem is mounted with journalling enabled, all data
(not just metadata) is committed into the journal prior to being written
into the main filesystem.
journal_data_ordered


When the filesystem is mounted with journalling enabled, all data is forced
directly out to the main file system prior to its metadata being committed
to the journal.
journal_data_writeback


When the filesystem is mounted with journalling enabled, data may be
written into the main filesystem after its metadata has been committed
to the journal. This may increase throughput, however, it may allow old
data to appear in files after a crash and journal recovery.
nobarrier


The file system will be mounted with barrier operations in the journal
disabled. (This option is currently only supported by the ext4 file
system driver in 2.6.35+ kernels.)
block_validity


The file system will be mounted with the block_validity option enabled,
which causes extra checks to be performed after reading or writing from
the file system. This prevents corrupted metadata blocks from causing
file system damage by overwriting parts of the inode table or block
group descriptors. This comes at the cost of increased memory and CPU
overhead, so it is enabled only for debugging purposes. (This option is
currently only supported by the ext4 file system driver in 2.6.35+
kernels.)
discard


The file system will be mouinted with the discard mount option. This will
cause the file system driver to attempt to use the trim/discard feature
of some storage devices (such as SSD’s and thin-provisioned drives
available in some enterprise storage arrays) to inform the storage
device that blocks belonging to deleted files can be reused for other
purposes. (This option is currently only supported by the ext4 file
system driver in 2.6.35+ kernels.)
nodelalloc


The file system will be mounted with the nodelalloc mount option. This
will disable the delayed allocation feature. (This option is currently
only supported by the ext4 file system driver in 2.6.35+ kernels.)

-O [^]feature[,...]


Set or clear the indicated filesystem features (options) in the filesystem.
More than one filesystem feature can be cleared or set by separating
features with commas. Filesystem features prefixed with a
caret character (‘^’) will be cleared in the filesystem’s superblock;
filesystem features without a prefix character or prefixed with a plus
character (‘+’) will be added to the filesystem.

The following filesystem features can be set or cleared using
tune2fs:



dir_index


Use hashed b-trees to speed up lookups in large directories.
filetype


Store file type information in directory entries.
flex_bg


Allow bitmaps and inode tables for a block group to be placed
anywhere on the storage media. Tune2fs will not reorganize
the location of the inode tables and allocation bitmaps, as
mke2fs(8)

will do when it creates a freshly formated file system with
flex_bg

enabled.

has_journal


Use a journal to ensure filesystem consistency even across unclean shutdowns.
Setting the filesystem feature is equivalent to using the
-j

option.

large_file


Filesystem can contain files that are greater than 2GB. (Modern kernels
set this feature automatically when a file > 2GB is created.)
resize_inode


Reserve space so the block group descriptor table may grow in the
future.
Tune2fs

only supports clearing this filesystem feature.

sparse_super


Limit the number of backup superblocks to save space on large filesystems.
uninit_bg


Allow the kernel to initialize bitmaps and inode tables and keep a high
watermark for the unused inodes in a filesystem, to reduce
e2fsck(8)

time. This first e2fsck run after enabling this feature will take the
full time, but subsequent e2fsck runs will take only a fraction of the
original time, depending on how full the file system is.



After setting or clearing
sparse_super,

uninit_bg,

filetype,

or
resize_inode

filesystem features,
e2fsck(8)

must be run on the filesystem to return the filesystem to a consistent state.
Tune2fs

will print a message requesting that the system administrator run
e2fsck(8)

if necessary. After setting the
dir_index

feature,
e2fsck -D

can be run to convert existing directories to the hashed B-tree format.
Enabling certain filesystem features may prevent the filesystem from being
mounted by kernels which do not support those features. In particular, the
uninit_bg

and
flex_bg

features are only supported by the ext4 filesystem.

-r reserved-blocks-count


Set the number of reserved filesystem blocks.
-T time-last-checked


Set the time the filesystem was last checked using
e2fsck.

The time is interpreted using the current (local) timezone.
This can be useful in scripts which use a Logical Volume Manager to make
a consistent snapshot of a filesystem, and then check the filesystem
during off hours to make sure it hasn’t been corrupted due to
hardware problems, etc. If the filesystem was clean, then this option can
be used to set the last checked time on the original filesystem. The format
of
time-last-checked

is the international date format, with an optional time specifier, i.e.
YYYYMMDD[HH[MM[SS]]]. The keyword
now

is also accepted, in which case the last checked time will be set to the
current time.

-u user


Set the user who can use the reserved filesystem blocks.
user

can be a numerical uid or a user name. If a user name is given, it
is converted to a numerical uid before it is stored in the superblock.

-U UUID


Set the universally unique identifier (UUID) of the filesystem to
UUID.

The format of the UUID is a series of hex digits separated by hyphens,
like this:
"c1b9d5a2-f162-11cf-9ece-0020afc76f16".
The
UUID

parameter may also be one of the following:



clear


clear the filesystem UUID
random


generate a new randomly-generated UUID
time


generate a new time-based UUID


The UUID may be used by
mount(8),

fsck(8),

and
/etc/fstab(5)

(and possibly others) by specifying
UUID=uuid

instead of a block special device name like
/dev/hda1.


See
uuidgen(8)

for more information.
If the system does not have a good random number generator such as
/dev/random

or
/dev/urandom,

tune2fs

will automatically use a time-based UUID instead of a randomly-generated UUID.


 

BUGS

We haven’t found any bugs yet. That doesn’t mean there aren’t any…
 

AUTHOR

tune2fs

was written by Remy Card <[email protected]>. It is currently being
maintained by Theodore Ts’o <[email protected]>.
tune2fs

uses the ext2fs library written by Theodore Ts’o <[email protected]>.
This manual page was written by Christian Kuhtz <[email protected]>.
Time-dependent checking was added by Uwe Ohse <[email protected]>.
 

AVAILABILITY

tune2fs

is part of the e2fsprogs package and is available from
http://e2fsprogs.sourceforge.net.
 

SEE ALSO

debugfs(8),

dumpe2fs(8),

e2fsck(8),

mke2fs(8)



 

Index



NAME

SYNOPSIS

DESCRIPTION

OPTIONS

BUGS

AUTHOR

AVAILABILITY

SEE ALSO



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