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Section: User Commands (1)
Updated: March 2014
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vdir – list directory contents





List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).
Sort entries alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor –sort.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

-a, –all

do not ignore entries starting with .
-A, –almost-all

do not list implied . and ..

with -l, print the author of each file
-b, –escape

print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

use SIZE-byte blocks. See SIZE format below
-B, –ignore-backups

do not list implied entries ending with ~

with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last
modification of file status information)
with -l: show ctime and sort by name
otherwise: sort by ctime

list entries by columns

colorize the output. WHEN defaults to `always’
or can be `never’ or `auto’. More info below
-d, –directory

list directory entries instead of contents,
and do not dereference symbolic links
-D, –dired

generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode

do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls –color
-F, –classify

append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

likewise, except do not append `*’

across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l,
single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C

like -l –time-style=full-iso

like -l, but do not list owner

group directories before files.

augment with a –sort option, but any
use of –sort=none (-U) disables grouping
-G, –no-group

in a long listing, don’t print group names
-h, –human-readable

with -l, print sizes in human readable format
(e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
-H, –dereference-command-line

follow symbolic links listed on the command line

follow each command line symbolic link
that points to a directory

do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN
(overridden by -a or -A)

append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
none (default), slash (-p),
file-type (–file-type), classify (-F)
-i, –inode

print the index number of each file
-I, –ignore=PATTERN

do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

like –block-size=1K

use a long listing format
-L, –dereference

when showing file information for a symbolic
link, show information for the file the link
references rather than for the link itself

fill width with a comma separated list of entries
-n, –numeric-uid-gid

like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs
-N, –literal

print raw entry names (don’t treat e.g. control
characters specially)

like -l, but do not list group information
-p, –indicator-style=slash

append / indicator to directories
-q, –hide-control-chars

print ? instead of non graphic characters

show non graphic characters as-is (default
unless program is `ls’ and output is a terminal)
-Q, –quote-name

enclose entry names in double quotes

use quoting style WORD for entry names:
literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c, escape
-r, –reverse

reverse order while sorting
-R, –recursive

list subdirectories recursively
-s, –size

print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

sort by file size

sort by WORD instead of name: none -U,
extension -X, size -S, time -t, version -v

with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification
time: atime -u, access -u, use -u, ctime -c,
or status -c; use specified time as sort key
if –sort=time

with -l, show times using style STYLE:
full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT.
FORMAT is interpreted like `date'; if FORMAT is
FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to
non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files;
if STYLE is prefixed with `posix-‘, STYLE
takes effect only outside the POSIX locale

sort by modification time
-T, –tabsize=COLS

assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

with -lt: sort by, and show, access time
with -l: show access time and sort by name
otherwise: sort by access time

do not sort; list entries in directory order

natural sort of (version) numbers within text
-w, –width=COLS

assume screen width instead of current value

list entries by lines instead of by columns

sort alphabetically by entry extension

list one file per line

SELinux options:


Display security context. Enable -l. Lines
will probably be too wide for most displays.
-Z, –context

Display security context so it fits on most
displays. Displays only mode, user, group,
security context and file name.

Display only security context and file name.

display this help and exit

output version information and exit

SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following:
KB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.

Using color to distinguish file types is disabled both by default and
with –color=never. With –color=auto, ls emits color codes only when
standard output is connected to a terminal. The LS_COLORS environment
variable can change the settings. Use the dircolors command to set it.

Exit status:


if OK,

if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).



Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.


Report vdir bugs to [email protected]

GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>

General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>

Report vdir translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>


Copyright © 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.

This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.
There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


The full documentation for

is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the


programs are properly installed at your site, the command

info coreutils ‘vdir invocation’

should give you access to the complete manual.






Exit status:





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