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Section: Miscellaneous Library Functions (3X)
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vidputscurses interfaces to terminfo database



#include <curses.h>

#include <term.h>

int setupterm(char *term, int fildes, int *errret);

int setterm(char *term);

TERMINAL *set_curterm(TERMINAL *nterm);

int del_curterm(TERMINAL *oterm);

int restartterm(char *term, int fildes, int *errret);

char *tparm(char *str, …);

int tputs(const char *str, int affcnt, int (*putc)(int));

int putp(const char *str);

int vidputs(chtype attrs, int (*putc)(int));

int vidattr(chtype attrs);

int vid_puts(attr_t attrs, short pair, void *opts, int (*putc)(char));

int vid_attr(attr_t attrs, short pair, void *opts);

int mvcur(int oldrow, int oldcol, int newrow, int newcol);

int tigetflag(char *capname);

int tigetnum(char *capname);

char *tigetstr(char *capname);



These low-level routines must be called by programs that have to deal
directly with the terminfo database to handle certain terminal
capabilities, such as programming function keys. For all other
functionality, curses routines are more suitable and their use is

Initially, setupterm should be called. Note that
setupterm is automatically called by initscr and
newterm. This defines the set of terminal-dependent variables
[listed in terminfo(5)].
The terminfo variables
lines and columns are initialized by setupterm as

If use_env(FALSE) has been called, values for
lines and columns specified in terminfo are used.

Otherwise, if the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS
exist, their values are used. If these environment variables do not
exist and the program is running in a window, the current window size
is used. Otherwise, if the environment variables do not exist, the
values for lines and columns specified in the
terminfo database are used.

The header files curses.h and term.h should be included (in this
order) to get the definitions for these strings, numbers, and flags.
Parameterized strings should be passed through tparm to instantiate them.
All terminfo strings [including the output of tparm] should be printed
with tputs or putp. Call the reset_shell_mode to restore the
tty modes before exiting [see curs_kernel(3X)]. Programs which use
cursor addressing should output enter_ca_mode upon startup and should
output exit_ca_mode before exiting. Programs desiring shell escapes
should call

reset_shell_mode and output exit_ca_mode before the shell
is called and should output enter_ca_mode and call
reset_prog_mode after returning from the shell.

The setupterm routine reads in the terminfo database,
initializing the terminfo structures, but does not set up the
output virtualization structures used by curses. The terminal
type is the character string term; if term is null, the
environment variable TERM is used.
All output is to file descriptor fildes which is initialized for output.
If errret is not null,
then setupterm returns OK or
ERR and stores a status value in the integer pointed to by
A return value of OK combined with status of 1 in errret
is normal.
If ERR is returned, examine errret:


means that the terminal is hardcopy, cannot be used for curses applications.

means that the terminal could not be found,
or that it is a generic type,
having too little information for curses applications to run.

means that the terminfo database could not be found.

If errret is
null, setupterm prints an error message upon finding an error
and exits. Thus, the simplest call is:

      setupterm((char *)0, 1, (int *)0);,

which uses all the defaults and sends the output to stdout.

The setterm routine is being replaced by setupterm. The call:

      setupterm(term, 1, (int *)0)

provides the same functionality as setterm(term).
The setterm routine is included here for BSD compatibility, and
is not recommended for new programs.

The set_curterm routine sets the variable cur_term to
nterm, and makes all of the terminfo boolean, numeric, and
string variables use the values from nterm. It returns the old value
of cur_term.

The del_curterm routine frees the space pointed to by
oterm and makes it available for further use. If oterm is
the same as cur_term, references to any of the terminfo
boolean, numeric, and string variables thereafter may refer to invalid
memory locations until another setupterm has been called.

The restartterm routine is similar to setupterm and initscr,
except that it is called after restoring memory to a previous state (for
example, when reloading a game saved as a core image dump). It assumes that
the windows and the input and output options are the same as when memory was
saved, but the terminal type and baud rate may be different. Accordingly,
it saves various tty state bits, calls setupterm,
and then restores the bits.

The tparm routine instantiates the string str with
parameters pi. A pointer is returned to the result of str
with the parameters applied.

The tputs routine applies padding information to the string
str and outputs it. The str must be a terminfo string
variable or the return value from tparm, tgetstr, or
tgoto. affcnt is the number of lines affected, or 1 if
not applicable. putc is a putchar-like routine to which
the characters are passed, one at a time.

The putp routine calls tputs(str, 1, putchar).
Note that the output of putp always goes to stdout, not to
the fildes specified in setupterm.

The vidputs routine displays the string on the terminal in the
video attribute mode attrs, which is any combination of the
attributes listed in curses(3X). The characters are passed to
the putchar-like routine putc.

The vidattr routine is like the vidputs routine, except
that it outputs through putchar.

The vid_attr and vid_puts routines correspond to vidattr and vidputs,
They use a set of arguments for representing the video attributes plus color,
one of type attr_t for the attributes and one of short for
the color_pair number.
The vid_attr and vid_puts routines
are designed to use the attribute constants with the WA_ prefix.
The opts argument is reserved for future use.
Currently, applications must provide a null pointer for that argument.

The mvcur routine provides low-level cursor motion. It takes
effect immediately (rather than at the next refresh).

The tigetflag, tigetnum and tigetstr routines return
the value of the capability corresponding to the terminfo
capname passed to them, such as xenl.

The tigetflag routine returns the value -1 if
capname is not a boolean capability,
or 0 if it is canceled or absent from the terminal description.

The tigetnum routine returns the value -2 if
capname is not a numeric capability,
or -1 if it is canceled or absent from the terminal description.

The tigetstr routine returns the value (char *)-1
if capname is not a string capability,
or 0 if it is canceled or absent from the terminal description.

The capname for each capability is given in the table column entitled
capname code in the capabilities section of terminfo(5).

char *boolnames[], *boolcodes[], *boolfnames[]

char *numnames[], *numcodes[], *numfnames[]

char *strnames[], *strcodes[], *strfnames[]

These null-terminated arrays contain the capnames, the
termcap codes, and the full C names, for each of the
terminfo variables.


Routines that return an integer return ERR upon failure and OK
(SVr4 only specifies "an integer value other than ERR") upon successful
completion, unless otherwise noted in the preceding routine descriptions.

Routines that return pointers always return NULL on error.

X/Open defines no error conditions.
In this implementation


returns an error
if its terminal parameter is null.

calls tputs, returning the same error-codes.

returns an error
if the associated call to setupterm returns an error.

returns an error
if it cannot allocate enough memory, or
create the initial windows (stdscr, curscr, newscr).
Other error conditions are documented above.

returns an error if the string parameter is null.
It does not detect I/O errors:
X/Open states that tputs ignores the return value
of the output function putc.



The setupterm routine should be used in place of setterm.
It may be useful when you want to test for terminal capabilities without
committing to the allocation of storage involved in initscr.

Note that vidattr and vidputs may be macros.


The function setterm is not described by X/Open and must
be considered non-portable. All other functions are as described by X/Open.

setupterm copies the terminal name to the array ttytype.
This is not part of X/Open Curses, but is assumed by some applications.

In System V Release 4, set_curterm has an int return type and
returns OK or ERR. We have chosen to implement the X/Open Curses

In System V Release 4, the third argument of tputs has the type
int (*putc)(char).

At least one implementation of X/Open Curses (Solaris) returns a value
other than OK/ERR from tputs.
That returns the length of the string, and does no error-checking.

X/Open Curses prototypes tparm with a fixed number of parameters,
rather than a variable argument list.
This implementation uses a variable argument list.
Portable applications should provide 9 parameters after the format;
zeroes are fine for this purpose.

X/Open notes that after calling mvcur, the curses state may not match the
actual terminal state, and that an application should touch and refresh
the window before resuming normal curses calls.
Both ncurses and System V Release 4 curses implement mvcur using
the SCREEN data allocated in either initscr or newterm.
So though it is documented as a terminfo function,
mvcur is really a curses function which is not well specified.

X/Open states that the old location must be given for mvcur.
This implementation allows the caller to use -1’s for the old ordinates.
In that case, the old location is unknown.

Extended terminal capability names, e.g., as defined by tic -x,
are not stored in the arrays described in this section.












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